ASA 101, Basic Keelboat Sailing Standard
ASA 101, 龍骨帆船基礎航行認證標準

在輕風到和風風(最多15節)和海象下,有能力駕駛一艘大約20至27英尺長的單桅龍骨帆船。了解基本航行術語、部件和功能、掌舵指令、基本調帆、帆船航向、浮標、船藝和安全,包括基本導航規則,以避免碰撞和危害。 無需輔助引擎動力。

Able to skipper a sloop-rigged keelboat of approximately 20 to 27 feet in length by day in light to moderate winds (up to 15 knots) and sea conditions. Knowledge of basic sailing terminology, parts and functions, helm commands, basic sail trim, points of sail, buoyage, seamanship and safety including basic navigation rules to avoid collisions and hazards. Auxiliary power operation is not required.



To start your journey, take the Online Sailing Course entitled “Your First Sail”. In this fun and interactive course you will learn sailboat basics, including sailing terminology, commands used at the helm, and how the sails move the boat forward.



Sailing Made Easy Textbook, USCG Navigation Rules & Regulations Handbook, A Boater’s Guide to the Federal Requirements for Recreational Boats


基本航行術語 / Basic Sailing Terminology

1.描述並識別以下帆船部件及其功能: / Describe and identify the following sailboat parts and their functions:

  • Hull
  • Deck
  • Transom
  • Keel
  • Mast
  • Boom
  • Gooseneck
  • Bow
  • Stern
  • Helm / Tiller / Wheel
  • Rudder
  • Cockpit
  • Cabin
  • Standing Rigging
  • Shrouds
  • Spreaders
  • Chainplate
  • Headstay / Forestay
  • Backstay
  • Stanchion
  • Lifeline
  • Pulpit
  • Winch
  • Cleat
  • Block
  • Fairlead
  • Fender
  • Docklines

2. 識別和描述以下帆、帆件和帆船控制的功能: / Identify and describe the functions of the following sails, sail parts and sail controls:

  • Mainsail
  • Jib / Genoa
  • Head
  • Tack
  • Clew
  • Foot
  • Luff
  • Leech
  • Downhaul / Cunningham
  • Batten
  • Batten Pocket
  • Bolt Rope*
  • Hank
  • Running Rigging
  • Halyard
  • Mainsheet
  • Jibsheets
  • Boom Topping Lift
  • Boom Vang
  • Telltale
  • Outhaul
  • Traveler
  • Shackle
  • Roller Furler

3. 定義下列術語: / Define the following terms:

  • Port
  • Starboard
  • Aft
  • Beam
  • Ahead
  • Astern
  • Abeam
  • Windward
  • Leeward
  • Draft
  • Freeboard
  • Heel
  • Skipper
  • Weather helm*
  • Skipper
  • Helmsman
  • Crew

船隻操縱調度與帆船航向 / Maneuvers & Points of Sail

4. 使用圖解和識別以下操縱調度、帆船航向和其他術語: / Explain and identify using diagrams the following maneuvers, points of sail, and other terms:

  • Head-to-Wind*
  • No-Sail Zone
  • Close - Hauled
  • Close Reach
  • Beam Reach
  • Broad Reach
  • Run
  • Sailing-by-the-Lee*
  • In Irons
  • Luffing
  • Port Tack
  • Starboard Tack
  • Tacking
  • Jibing
  • Stand-on
  • Give-way

5. 解釋並對以下舵手命令和航員應答正確地行動: / Explain and utilize correctly the following helm commands and crew responses:

  • 航向上風 / Heading Up
  • 航向下風 / Bearing Away
  • 準備好! - 備便 - 向下風轉舵(或就要轉向或轉向) / Ready About - Ready - Helms a-Lee (or Coming About or Tacking)
  • 準備順風換舷 - 備便 - 換舷囉(或換舷) / Prepare to Jibe - Ready - Jibe-Ho (or Jibing)

導航規則 / Navigation Rules

從6到12項,根據USCG“導航規則手冊”中的規定,使用適當的圖表來描述25英尺的休閒船舶的適用規則。 在每種情況下確定“直航船”和“讓路船”。

For items 6 through 12, describe, using diagrams as appropriate, the applicable rules for a 25-foot recreational sailing vessel, as found in the USCG Navigation Rules and Regulations Handbook. Identify the “stand-on” and “give-way” vessel in each situation.

6.瞭望,規則 5 / Look-out, Rule 5.
7.不同舷臨風的帆船(右舷/左舷),規則12(a)(i) / Sailing vessels with the wind on different sides (starboard / port), Rule 12(a)(i)
8.同風側臨風的帆船(下風/上`風),規則12(a)(ii) / Sailing vessels with the wind on same side (leeward / windward), Rule 12(a)(ii)
9.左舷臨風的帆船不能確定其他帆船何舷臨風,細則12(a)(iii) / Sailing vessel on port tack cannot determine windward sailing vessel’s tack, Rule 12(a)(iii)
10.轉職(細則13) / Overtaking (Rule 13)
11.機動船舶相遇(規則14) / Power-driven vessels approaching each other head-on (Rule 14)
12.交叉相遇局面,當2艘機動船交叉相遇而涉及碰撞危險時,有他船在其右舷的船隻須給他船讓路;(規則15) / Power-driven vessel with another power-driven vessel on starboard side (Rule 15)
13.說明在商業航道附近航行時採取的適當行動,包括對危險信號之回應。 / Describe appropriate actions to be taken when sailing in the vicinity of commercial traffic, including responding to a danger signal.

助航 / Aids to Navigation

14.以顏色,形狀和編號,識別和說明側標助航的目的,包括優先航道標 / Identify and state the purpose of lateral aids to navigation by color, shape & numbering, including preferred channel markers.
15.識別安全水域、信息和管制標記 / Identify safe water, information and regulatory markers.

安全裝備和程序 / Safety Gear & Procedures

16.25英尺長的休閒帆船,列出聯邦所規定的配備 / List the federally required equipment for a recreational sailboat of 25-feet in length.
17.識別25英尺長的休閒船使用的導航燈的位置和顏色 / Identify the location and color of navigation lights used by a recreational vessel of 25-feet in length.
18.說明航行計劃的效用,舉例說明其中所載的信息,並向誰提交計畫 / Describe the purpose of a Float Plan, give examples of information contained therein and to whom it should be submitted.
19.描述船舶事故必須何時、向誰報告 / Describe when and to whom boating accidents must be reported.
20.說明聯邦規定駕船的血液酒精含量(BAC)限值 / State the Federal Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) limit for vessel operation.


安全設備 / Safety Equipment

21.展示正確使用救生衣或個人浮具裝置(PFD) / Demonstrate the proper use of a lifejacket or personal flotation device (PFD).

升帆航行 / Sailing

認證的水手已經成功地證明了自己的能力: / A Certified Sailor has successfully demonstrated his or her ability to:

安全地繫索/升帆/整理帆,並透過以下繩子和控繩裝置,正確的獲得調帆,如果在練習船 / Rig/hoist/set sails safely and correctly to obtain proper sail trim using the following lines and controls, if available on the practice vessel

22.升帆繩和/或捲帆器 / Halyards and/or furling devices
23.下拉繩或帆前緣下拉繩 / Downhaul or Cunningham
24.外拉繩 / Outhaul
25.橫桅下拉索具組 / Boom Vang
26.主帆繩 / Mainsheet
27.前帆繩 / Jibsheets
28.絞盤 / Winches
29.主帆繩走橋 / Traveler
30.適當地降帆/捲帆/收藏帆及環繞/綑綁/收藏繩子 / Lower/furl/stow sails and coil/flake/stow lines properly

在沒有指導或協助的情況下,以船長/舵手的角色,在第31 - 42部分所列舉的操縱調度中,表現出適當的指揮和展現能力,安全性和良好的船藝。遵照所有助航設備,並正確依照基本的導航規則。 確保正確調帆,及船舶始終處於控制狀態。

Without coaching or assistance, verbalize appropriate commands and demonstrate competence, safety and good seamanship in the role of Skipper / Helmsman during the maneuvers listed in elements 31 – 42. Honor all aids to navigation and use properly the basic Navigation Rules. Ensure sails are trimmed correctly and the vessel is in control at all times.

31.準備妥當駛離碼頭或泊球,安全出航 / Depart dock or mooring fully ready to get underway safely
32.選擇並維持一定的航向和航線 / Select and maintain a given tack and course
33.展示如何脫離“滯航區” / Demonstrate how to get out of “irons”
34.航向上風 / Head Up
35.航向下風 / Bear Away
36.迎風航向 / Sail Close Hauled
37.近風航向 / Sail on a Close Reach
38.正側航向 / Sail on a Beam Reach
39.側順航向 / Sail on a Broad Reach
40.正順航向 / Sail on a Run
41.迎風轉向 / Tack
42.順風換舷 / Jibe
43.作為船員,在上述展示中給予適當的口頭回應並採取正確的行動 / As crew, give appropriate verbal responses and perform correct actions during the maneuvers listed above.

船員落水 / Crew Overboard

44.描述並展示在航行中,從人員落水直到安全地救上船,所採取的正確行動 / Describe and demonstrate the correct actions to be taken while under sail from the time a person falls overboard until safely recovered.

返航和繫泊 / Return & Secure

45.返回碼頭或球泊 / Return to dock or mooring. 46.繫泊,使用適當的球泊/碼頭纜繩、碰墊等 / Secure vessel, using appropriate mooring/dock lines, fenders, etc.


描述繩結的效用,並在沒有協助、及時的情形下,打以下每一個繩結和繩套: / Describe the purpose of, and construct without assistance in a timely manner, each of the following knots and hitches:

47. 8字結 / Figure-8 Knot
48.方結 / Square (Reef) Knot
49.雙套結 / Clove Hitch
50.雙半套結 / Round Turn & 2 Half Hitches
51.羊角結 / Cleat Hitch
52.稱人結 / Bowline


ASA Certificated Standards

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